Wichita Hospitals Prepare for Smallpox Threat

By: Sahar El-Hodiri
By: Sahar El-Hodiri

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Wichita health care workers are getting ready in case there is a biological weapon attack. Wesley's Director of Emergency and Trauma Diana Lippoldt is one of many volunteering to get a smallpox vaccine. She says no one is sure if and when there might be an attack, but she wants to be prepared.

Via Christi Medical Center and the Sedgwick County Health Department are also preparing. This all comes as the Centers For Disease Control gets ready to vaccinate health care workers all over the nation on a voluntary basis. The goal is to have them able to safely treat a smallpox patient if there's ever a terrorist attack using the virus. County health workers feel lucky this disease is something they can be vaccinated against.

Routine vaccination for smallpox ended in the U.S. in 1972 and the disease was wiped out from the world. Now the government is bracing for a comeback. Many compare this to the anthrax scare, which health care workers finally figured out how to handle. The same will happen with the smallpox threat.

The State Health Department is asking for a list of volunteers by Monday of volunteers willing to be vaccinated. The KDHE will screen those volunteers to see who actually will get the shot. That will depend on things like their risk of complications from the shot.

The smallpox shots will be available for healthcare workers in Kansas shortly after the President announces his vaccination plan. Eventually, all Americans will be offered access to the vaccine.

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Smallpox

  • The name smallpox is derived from the Latin word "spotted" and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the body of an infected person.

Forms of Smallpox

  • Two forms of smallpox, variola major and variola minor.

  • Variola Major: The sever and most common form of small pox, with a more extensive rash and higher fever. Four types of variola major smallpox:
    • Ordinary: The most frequent type, accounting for 90% of the cases.
    • Modified: Mild and occurring in previously vaccinated persons.
    • Flat: Very fatal. Very hard to recover from this form of smallpox.
    • Hemorrhagic: Very rare and most serious. Extremely fatal form of smallpox.

  • Variola Minor: A less common presentation of smallpox, and a much less sever disease, with death rates historically of 1% or less.

Where Smallpox Originates From

  • Smallpox is caused by the variola virus that emerged in human population thousands of years ago.
  • Except for laboratory stockpiles, the variola virus has been eliminated.

Transmission

  • Direct and prolonged face-to-face contact is required to spread smallpox.
  • Can be spread through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects such as bedding or clothing.
  • Rarely, smallpox has been spread by virus carried in the air in enclosed settings such as buildings, buses and trains.
  • Humans are the only natural hosts of variola. Smallpox is not known to be transmitted by insects or animals.

Stages of Smallpox Disease

  • Incubation Period (7-17 days, not contagious) -- Exposure to the virus is followed by an incubation period, which people do not have any symptoms and may feel fine.
  • Initial Symptoms (2-4 days, sometimes contagious) -- The first symptoms of smallpox include fever, malaise, head and body aches, and sometimes vomiting. The fever is usually high, in the range of 101° F - 104° F.
  • Early Rash (4 days, most contagious) -- A rash emerges first as small red spots on the tongue and in the mouth. Usually the rash spreads to all parts of the body within 24 hours. As the rash appears, the fever usually falls and the person may start feeling better. However, by the fourth day, the bumps fill with a thick fluid, the fever will raise again and will last until scabs begin to form on the bumps.
  • Pustular Rash (5 days, contagious) -- The bumps become pustules, sharply raised, usually round and firm to the touch as if there is a small round object under the skin.
  • Pustules and Scabs (5 days, contagious) -- The pustules begin to form a crust and then scab. By the end of the second week after the rash appears, most of the sores have scabbed over.
  • Resolving Scabs (6 days, contagious) -- The scabs begin to fall off, leaving marks on the skin that eventually become pitted scars. Most scabs will have fallen off three weeks after the rash appears.
  • Scabs Resolved (not contagious) -- Scabs have fallen off. Person is no longer contagious.

Source: Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response's (www.bt.cdc.gov) Web site contributed to this report.


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